David J. Thouless, F. Duncan and Michael Kosterlitz have won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their research into the properties of matter in extreme states. The paper dives into the understanding of superconductors, superfluids and thin magnetic films. The key of the success of the paper is the study of the topology or fundamental shape or matter when it becomes extremely thin or small as to start to be governed by quantum rules. The analysis of electrical conductivity and atom chains is believed to be the basis for future generation computers and the development of topological insulators. The paper does not only furthers our theorical understanding of matter but it opens the door to more efficient applications for computational electronics and space materials. Even though the paper has some age, it has been the base for further research. It is exciting to think of the universes that we have to explore. The universe so big in which our planet is a tiny dot and the universe so small we are still trying to find what the smallest dot looks like.

 http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/05/science/nobel-prize-physics-topology.html?smprod=nytcore-ipad&smid=nytcore-ipad-share

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